Thursday, 7 December 2017

A Musical Musing

So this is a blog post about some songs that have been stuck in my head lately, that are on my playlist, and that I found myself thinking about why I enjoy them.
Without further adieu, here they are.

1. Both Sides Now - Joni Mitchell


A beautiful musing on love. The experience and wisdom the years implied in the song's lyrics come through in Joni's voice and in the accompanying instrumentation of the song. Lovely for when you just want to reflect.

2. LoveStoned/I Think She Knows - Justin Timberlake


When I was younger, I was all about how much noise a song had. The upbeat tempo that kept you dancing. So the 'I Think She Knows' interlude didn't interest me; it pretty much went over my head. Listening to the song now, I agree with John Mayer; the 45 seconds or so of 'I Think She Knows' really are sonic bliss. At least to me. Your mileage may vary 😎.

3. She Has No Time - Keane

 
A lovely song for when you wonder so much about what could have been that your heart aches and you almost want to curse the day you met that someone special. 

"You think your days are uneventful / And no one ever thinks about you ", "You think your days are ordinary / And no one ever thinks about you / But we're all the same" 

We all feel this way at some point. We think we must be boring, unexciting, uninteresting, somehow inherently below par. Not good enough. The closing line reminds us that before we throw that pity party, it's not just us who feel strangely uninspiring; we all do from time to time. It isn't the reason why someone would leave. 

"Think about the lonely people / Then think about the day she found you / Or lie to yourself / And see it all dissolve around you" 

Remember that there was a 'before', a moment when you'd give anything to feel what you felt, to have that experience of cherishing someone however brief. They also tell you that you have a choice: you can choose to be grateful, to keep the memory of that moment as something wonderful that happened and you are happy that it happened, or you can ruin it with sour grapes, and say to yourself: "It didn't matter much" 

What you had was beautiful, accept it and move on. 

4. Happen - Emeli Sande

 
I remember when I first listened to the song, Emeli's soaring vocals caught me offguard and made me realize that I had missed half the song already. I think of this song as poetry made music, if that makes sense 😉. 

There are a million more dreams being dreamt tonight / But somehow this one feels like it just might / Happen / Happen to me

I won't try to explain. Just listen to the song.  

5. Same Ol' Mistakes (cover, orig. by Tame Impala) - Rihanna

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HbfuDghCEKI

I typically try to listen to the original of a song, if I like the cover. I make an exception for Rihanna because she does a good job with this song. Honestly I could unpack this song for days. So below are my favourite (lyrical) bits.

I know you don't think it's right / I know that you think it's fake / Maybe fake's what I like / The point is I have the right

Very true. 'Nuff said :D

Man I know that it's hard to digest / But maybe your story / Ain't so different from the rest / And I know it seems wrong to accept / But you've got your demons / And she's got her regrets
Man I know that it's hard to digest / A realization is as good as a guess / And I know it seems wrong to accept / But you've got your demons / And she's got her regrets..

It is hard to take when you're made to consider that maybe, just maybe, you're not alone in what you feel. That it has been done to death by other people. And the only reason why you think it is special, is because it's your first time or you have too much hope or whatever. Sooner or later, baggage comes into the picture. What you were running from catches up with you. The circle of life, or karma, if you will.

Thursday, 13 July 2017

oVirt Documentation: Starting from Square One

Two days ago, I had to start from scratch. Not because my machine crashed or some libraries simply refused cooperate, giving each other that special form of evil eyes that means everything changed but it just has to remain the same. I started from scratch because I discovered that my initial budget of 30GB worth of space was just not going to cut it for what I wanted to do. I had stumbled upon two facts regarding Docker containers: one, disk space should not be a problem for you, and two, bandwidth should not be a problem for you. The second I was prepared for, the first I had not anticipated. 

You see, one of the first Docker images I had pulled was PostgreSQL. Hardly large, less than 300MB. So that had more or less set the tone for what I thought I was to expect from Docker images. Alas, that has not proved to be the case. As part of my work, I was to get images for Ceph (ceph/daemon), Gluster (gluster/glusterfs), FreeIPA (freeipa-server/freeipa-container), and ManageIQ (manageiq/manageiq). 

Why were the images much larger? Well the idea is that a Docker container be self-sufficient. So in your Dockerfile (the file that specifies what your image and thus what your container will have) you need to specify everything that the container will need to run the application as comfortably as possible, without anyone, anywhere worrying about things going wrong. Of course the images from which we derive the containers do not have graphical environments; what makes them large is how much software is required. And if you need libraries upon libraries of stuff, then... You get the idea. 

It wasn't such a bad thing to start afresh though; I got to install the correct version of Docker for CentOS. One of the challenges of using Linux distributions that are made for use on servers (Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS and the rest of the Enterprise Linux family) is that frequently when you just type in `apt install <package>` or `yum install <package>`, you end up with a legacy package rather than the new version. So on CentOS, the package `docker` refers to Docker from back in the day. Its re-branded self is now split up into two versions: Docker CE `docker-ce` (community edition) and Docker EE `docker-ee` (enterprise editon). Something I figured out in a rather roundabout way the first time around. 

So far, I've pulled all my images and updated all my stuff. What comes next? Fitting it all together. My plan is to start with PostgreSQL. As I go along, I hope to explain how each of the containers I'll be running fits with oVirt. 

Cheers and thanks for stopping by!

Saturday, 1 July 2017

Working with Open Source Projects: oVirt Documentation

So from now until the end of August I'll be working on documentation for oVirt. In particular I'll be documenting how to use containers with oVirt. Here we go...

What are containers?
 
Indeed, what are containers? One analogy I could use is food and how we carry it. When eating food, we use utensils to eat, namely forks, knives, and plates. When we're at home, we have access to these very easily. It is when we decide to pack food for a journey that we have to decide what to carry on the basis of ease and comfort. So we get a bag that will carry the disk containing the food as well as the tools we will use to eat (forks, knives, and/or spoons). A container in tech terms, is a lot like the bag; it carries the application (food) and the environment it needs (the forks, knives and/or spoons). 
Containers are used most commonly with Docker and that's what I'll be using as I work on the documentation. Docker is available for Linux, MacOS and Windows. Depending on your version of MacOS or Windows, you may use boot2docker or you shall be able to run Docker natively, without any intermediaries. As far as I know, Docker from its initial stages has always been run natively on Linux, so your installation should relatively painless on this platform. A note regarding running Docker (and by extension containers) on Linux: you need elevated privileges. So either you run Docker using sudo or you add your normal user to the docker group. Docker containers are setup by running docker pull <image-name> and docker run <container-name>.

What is Docker?

I’ve mentioned images in the last paragraph without saying how it all fits together. The idea about containers is that they are self-sufficient, like our food container with utensils in my-not-so-very-good example above. Containers in Docker are formed by utilizing a Docker image, which in turn uses a Dockerfile (yes, apparently convention dictates that I spell that as one word. Not my fault :D).

A Dockerfile is saved as `Dockerfile` and basically contains instructions on how to build a Docker image. A Docker image contains whatever the Dockerfile specifies it should have. Usually this includes an operating system, some software libraries necessary for the application inside the image to run and the application itself. The container I was talking about earlier is an instance of the image. Now I didn’t have to actually make a Docker image myself because my use case is covered by the images at Docker Hub (link here). A Google search for ‘<application-name> + container’ should point you in the direction of where you can find Dockerfiles and images to build a container of your choosing. Docker has some excellent documentation on how to build your own Docker image using a Dockerfile and they have an example using PostgreSQL that is well worth looking at. 

What is oVirt?

oVirt is an open source project started by Red Hat. Red Hat is well known as being behind Red Hat Enterprise Linux, a distribution of Linux that is used in organizations that want to use Linux and have professional support doing it. It also supports Fedora, which is another Linux distribution on which Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL for short) is based. Fedora is more bleeding-edge; RHEL is stable and has well tested features. 

What will I be doing exactly?

PostgreSQL, Gluster, Ceph, OpenStack, Glance/Cinder/Neutron, ManageIQ, and FreeIPA. These are all software that can used alongside oVirt or are actually dependencies of oVirt (PostgreSQL and Gluster fall into this category). The challenge here is that when developers create applications, these applications have conflicts that aren’t easily resolved. Deploying them on separate machines and then linking them is one option, but we would want a solution where they can all be deployed on one machine. Which is where containers come in. A container frees us from dependency hell (a situation where different software applications require libraries that are incompatible with each other and thus cannot co-exist on the same operating system) since containers are isolated from one another as separate processes and are only linked to access a service provided by that container e.g. PostgreSQL’s database.

My job will be to document how this can be done without too much head scratching and hair pulling.

My next post shall be about getting the PostgreSQL container to work with oVirt.

Cheers!
 

Sunday, 28 May 2017

My Open Source Journey: Working With Open Source Projects

Hello people. Long time, no see. For those of you kind enough to wonder what I’ve been up to, here we are. I’ve been contributing to open source software or at least trying to, with varying levels of success. Now if you’re asking what open source software is, please read here for the thorough definition that I, in the interest of remaining on topic, cannot give you. For the purpose of this post, I’m assuming that you’ve read this and will keep it in mind as we go along.

So, to return to what I was saying earlier. I’ve been trying to contribute to open source software. I had wanted to for the longest time. Anyone who’s known me long enough, knows that I’m a huge Linux fan. Using Linux isn’t necessary to contribute to open source software especially if your skills are non technical. You can organize events, share the software that you love with friends and family, and even donate to the cause. So I must arrest you with a disclaimer: this particular open source contributor is of a technical bent. Thus this post will be biased towards contributing as a technical person. However if you’re non technical and you’re interested, I think this guide will help. 


Technical and still following along? Thank you for sticking with me. 😎 Now as I was saying using Linux isn’t necessary but it helps. Primarily because if you use Linux long enough, you begin to get into the techie bits. You find yourself asking questions like ‘Why isn’t X working?’, ‘I got this error message, what does it mean?’ You spend time trawling through forums, asking questions on IRC and mailing lists, looking for solutions.

Through this you (hopefully) build up good habits when interacting with other open source software users and developers (the people making and maintaining the software). You learn empathy, respect, how to ask the right questions (a good and humourous guide is here), how to keep track of and find error messages, and in time, what these error messages mean and what they could possibly point to as being the problem. You also learn how to read documentation (RTFM is commonly expanded as Read The Fine Manual, and if you’re being told this, don’t feel too down; it usually means that your problem is fairly simple or the people you're interacting with aren't very pleasant. It does happen, though rarely. The other form of this is ‘Google it’. If you insist, you’ll get a LMGTFY link (LMGTFY = Let Me Google That For You). 

These skills can be learned via using a programming language or through using a particular piece of software, open source or otherwise. Cue personal biases here; I learned this through open source software and mostly through using Linux. Your mileage may very well vary 😉. If pushed to recommend anything, curiosity and a hunger to learn go a very long way. I have had many headaches, and many frustrations in my journey using Linux e.g. at some point I had to simply get used to my computer crashing every now and again. Lesson? Make sure I have a very, very recent backup of my data.

Reasons why I contribute
I love the idea of open source software and I want to help. It’s a mutually beneficial transaction: you develop your coding and/or documentation skills, and the project gets one more contributor. Also, I must confess I’m not very good with doing personal projects. I don’t have very fond memories of having to do them while in uni. 

I think projects are a good idea, since you have something to show on your portfolio, but for me the challenge was that there was a huge disconnect between what I wanted to do, the skills I had and the time available. It wasn’t pleasant for me both psychologically and emotionally. So open source software works for me. It has an existing codebase so I don’t have to think about what to create (I do hope not to remain this way forever obviously, but for now it will do 😉), and it builds on the skills I acquired through using Linux (let’s just say I found sorting out my computer problems very...absorbing 😉)

People have varying and diverse reasons for contributing, from wanting to see a particular feature implemented (yes there are such gutsy people out there and we can be them! 😀) or having a particular bug fixed (ditto). Or they like the software but aren’t too impressed by the state of the documentation and so they set out to right that.


Whatever your reason, I encourage you to do your best, ask for help and/or clarification, and always remember that the people you’re interacting with are humans too. It’s very easy sometimes to become entitled regarding open source software and I would encourage you not to be that person who from the first sentence shows that they are looking for a babysitter and has no plans of doing any real work. Try as hard as you can not to be them. I have asked questions about the obvious, said something that in hindsight was really silly to say, and complained about a problem when the fault lay on my end and not that of the software, so I know you can’t be perfect. Just do your best. 

How do you choose your project

Just to be clear, it isn’t weird if you don’t immediately find a project that works for you. You may have been searching a long time. Have faith, you’ll find one 😊. Just keep your eyes open. If the above story inspires you or makes it look a little less daunting than it did before, here are some tips on picking a project:

1. Choose a project you like.  
Honestly, don’t get into a project because it is cool to do so or whatever. 
Because when you’re in the thick of things, what will sustain you is your liking (eventually and/or hopefully, love) for the project, not the project that is ‘cool’. (though that sometimes helps 😉). 

2. Choose a project that looks interesting to you 
By interesting, I meant that you've used it before and found yourself curious about its inner workings or you like the idea behind the project and want to learn more. Sometimes you like a project but its not for you at that particular moment in time. You may be learning Python and the project you’re curious about uses Ruby. 
If you’re interested in learning Ruby too, it’s great for the future but not right now. If you can, find other ways to contribute to it or keep an eye on it for when you’re ready.

Combining both of these is great because it means that you’ll become a long-term contributor to the project and you’ll be able to really benefit both the project and yourself. Having at least one of these is good because one tends to follow the other i.e. if you’re interested, there’s a chance you’ll end up liking the project and if you like the project, you stand a good chance of staying interested. Make sense? No? Well, you get what I mean. 😀 Seriously, if it keeps you up at night thinking (positively, of course), makes you excited to get up in the morning (or at least very willing 😉) or stays in your head throughout the day, chances are it’s the project for you.

How do you find your project? If you're not already using open source software, try searching GitLab and GitHub for interesting projects. GitHub can sort projects by language and if you wish to see the license, there's a LICENSE.md file in the project's repository (where the project stores their source code) or looking at the README file will also work. 
Starting your own project is also another option 😉 

Preparing to Contribute 

Now that I’ve left you feeling inspired and excited to go work on your very own open source project (you can start your own by the way), let me hold you for a moment and talk about laying the foundation. This is as follows: 

  1. Know the project’s Code of Conduct.
  2. Know the project’s aims and goals.
  3. Know how to prepare your computer to contribute.
  4. Know how and where to get help with any issues to do with the project. 
Does that look daunting? No worries. The above basically boil down to first reading the project's documentation before interacting with it. 

Knowing the project’s Code of Conduct 


This essentially means treating others the way you would want to be treated, remembering that the people you’re interacting with are human beings just like you, and never saying something online that you’d never even dream of saying in person.

It means being respectful at all times, when you agree with the person, and when you disagree with someone. It means aiming to be your best self: honest and sincere about both your flaws and shortcomings as well as your talents and gifts, being responsible with them and apologizing for when either of these get in the way of your work or the work of others on the project. It means trying very hard to be objective, even when you’d much rather be biased. A project’s code of conduct also provides ways for you to seek help in the event that you are harmed by a fellow contributor’s behaviour, regardless of who they are in the project.
 
 

Knowing the project’s aims and goals 


This is important especially when there are different ways to do the same thing. Sometimes a project elects not to go down a very obvious path and instead chooses a different route e.g. opts not to implement a certain feature. If you’re not very well versed regarding the project’s aims and goals, and you like the feature, it can be very frustrating to see something that you think is good not implemented, even when it seems there are willing contributors who can make it happen. Keeping the project’s aims and goals in mind helps you keep things in perspective and helps you remain on the same page as the developers and the leaders in the community who do the hard work of managing the sometimes not-so-fun activities that affect how a project is run.  

Knowing how to prepare your computer to contribute


This is very necessary to do. If you're planning to work on documentation and/or development of the project, you’ll need to do this. This usually involves making sure you have the right system (development can be resource intensive and/or platform specific, depending on the project), the right configuration and/or tools for what you’re planning to contribute to and how you’ll be using them, knowing where to download the project’s source code, how to compile it, and what to expect while doing this. The more time you invest in doing this, the more difficulties you spare yourself later on when you begin work.

 

Knowing how and where to get help


If you still remember me randomly throwing the words ‘mailing lists’ ‘forums’ and ‘IRC’ and could not for the life of you figure out what I meant, here’s where I explain.

IRC stands for Internet Relay Chat. You’ve used WhatsApp, right? Or Facebook Messenger? Or Google Hangouts? Well IRC operates on a similar principle but is far, far more basic. The idea is that you connect to a server via an IRC client that is on a particular network. Most open source projects can be found on the Freenode network (irc.freenode.net) or OFTC (irc.oftc.net). Other projects may have their own server altogether (like Mozilla which is at irc.mozilla.org or that of GNOME which is at irc.gimp.net). Some networks like OFTC and Freenode have web interfaces (e.g. https://webchat.freenode.net/ for Freenode and https://www.oftc.net/WebChat for OFTC
) that you can log into using just a browser. Here’s a good guide on how to get started with IRC. Good IRC clients to begin with are Pidgin and HexChat, which work on Windows, Linux and OS X. 

After connecting, you join a channel that deals with the project you're interested in e.g. on Freenode, you could join #kde and #kde-devel. Remember to register the name (known as a 'nickname' in IRC terms) as there are quite a few channels that won't allow you to participate if your nickname (nick for short) isn't registered. Like I said, you need not use your real name; any name you feel comfortable using will do.  
Forums are simple. You register with your name, e-mail address and password, confirm your registration (steps are usually sent via e-mail) and then proceed to  login to the forums using the details you provided during registration. Look for the areas in the forum relevant to you and what contributions you want to make to the project.
Now on to mailing lists. Ever seen a site asking you to give them your e-mail address so that you receive updates or a newsletter? Mailing lists are like that. Each project that uses a mailing list has a link directing you to where you can subscribe to them. You choose which mailing lists you wish to receive updates from. If you're planning to contribute, you would subscribe to the users' mailing list, then depending on what area you'll be working with, you'll subscribe to other mailing lists about your area of interest e.g. development, documentation, design and so on.

You can choose between a weekly digest, where you receive all the e-mails of the week or have the latest e-mails of the day sent to you daily. This is where commitment to the project comes in: if you're receiving emails that you're beginning to find a nuisance, there's a good chance that the project is not for you or e-mail is not your thing. Good explanations of mailing lists are here and here.
 
Whatever the means of interaction, introduce yourself and state what you’d like to do. Endeavour to show that you’ve read the documentation and ask for any other helpful information the community can provide. By the way, this is a good time to mention that you do not have to use your real name except in cases where it is required e.g. becoming a Debian Developer. If you’re a community contributor, then your real name is usually not necessary. So pick a name you like and register with it. But pick a good one, one that you wouldn’t be ashamed of should we somehow get to know your real identity 😉. 

 

Conclusion  

I could go on for pages and pages about this, but there are great resources out there, and I'll try to help you out if you ask nicely in the comments 😊. My next post will be about the projects I'm working on at the moment. Cheers!

Saturday, 1 April 2017

Thinking Out Loud: On Children

No matter how we try to make sense of it, having children is irrational. It defies what we conceive as logic. Something that we won't ever admit to ourselves. Especially since we almost always view childbearing and raising through such terribly rose-tinted glasses. To have someone totally dependent on you, both emotionally and physically, for their every need. For whom you shall be by turns criminal and detective, defender and prosecutor, judge, jury and accountability committee. Despite the fulfillment we find in seeing a child at peace, loved, well fed, and clothed, knowing it is our hard work that has made this possible, it is not enough to look at this (as a by-stander) and say, "Yes, I would love to have children, if only to have this feeling". The demands and the joys do not balance out as often as you thought they would and it is a while before you break-even.

If you stopped and looked at it all: the sleep deprivation, worry, anxiety, and tears; the joys, hopes, longings, and desires that you pin on your child. The pride, contentment and satisfaction. The potent emotional cocktail that you take every day you're with them. The changes that happen to you and continue to happen, and you don't know whether to resist or be swallowed whole. The struggle as you grapple with growth that leaves you outwardly unchanged but separates you from the years of your youth. Life's questions now demand certain answers. No longer can you leave contradicting facts to remain easy bedfellows; every moment, without knowing, you are choosing. Choosing the story you will tell. The narrative you will shape them with. We want to give them certainty. Security. We want them to learn the lessons without paying the price. Somehow. Or if they must suffer, let it be when our eyes are closed and our hearts are numb, and it is beyond us to feel anything.

A better way is acknowledge the having of children as a biological drive. Trying to come up with reasons for it is futile. We want to have children because the genetic material that we carry wants to live. To survive. To make as many copies as it can of itself. In a sense, it longs for immortality. And the entire procedure we have come up with for having children: find a suitable mate, make a home in which your children can be raised, and then have said children, simply enables our DNA to have a higher chance of surviving (your children growing to adulthood) and making more copies of itself. Do not attempt to rationalize, come up with reasons. To sugercoat. Acknowledge the madness of it all. The awkward balance you're trying to keep. Take it one day at a time and do your best. Mourn who you used to be and accept what you are becoming. The two go together. They both live inside you.

I will end this with a quote from Khalil Gibran's wonderful book, The Prophet:

"Your children are not your children. They are the sons and daughters of Life's longing for itself. They come through you but not from you, And though they are with you yet they belong not to you.

You may give them your love but not your thoughts, For they have their own thoughts. You may house their bodies but not their souls, For their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow, which you cannot visit, not even in your dreams. You may strive to be like them, but seek not to make them like you. For life goes not backward nor tarries with yesterday..."

Saturday, 4 June 2016

Book Review: Daemon - Daniel Suarez


 


The book tells the story of a daemon created by a computer game designer named Matthew Sobol, CEO of CyberStorm Entertainment, a company responsible for the production of successful MMORPGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games). 

A daemon, in techno-speak, usually refers to a computer program that runs in the background, without any interaction with the user. 

The Daemon kicks into action as soon as websites on the Internet print the obituary of Matthew Sobol. The existence of the Daemon is revealed when two programmers who unwittingly worked on the Daemon’s functionality are killed in seemingly bizarre ways. Upon further investigation, what the two deaths have in common is their utilization of the Internet.

What follows is a spiral into madness as the Daemon’s AI (Artificial Intelligence) is revealed to be frighteningly intelligent and perceptive, with it always being a step ahead of our heroes. It knows all and sees all. It recruits those best suited to its cause, with a remarkable understanding of what drives human beings and how to best use that for its own ends.

Needless to say, I enjoyed it immensely, and I look forward to reading the sequel. As someone who reads a lot and watches a fair amount of film, it is difficult sometimes when your field (in this case, IT) isn't often depicted in mainstream culture and when it is, it relies on tired, old cliches such as geeks who lack social skills, despise themselves, and are forever on the sidelines of society, coming in only to propel technological advancement. Without giving away too much, there is one such person in the book, but the most part most of the characters who work in typical IT fields like system administration and the like are given their full treatment as people who have lives, something that many do not associate with those who work in the IT industry. 

Another strength of the book is how well computer equipment as well as IT operations is described in the book. I found myself smiling nearly every other time at recognizing terms that are part of my vocabulary as someone who's in IT.

If you are a computer person who misses seeing your world well depicted in fiction, then this book is for you.


Friday, 29 April 2016

The Danish Girl: A Review

During her acceptance speech for the Best Supporting Actress Oscar Award, Alicia VIkander thanked her co-star Eddie Redmayne rather profusely. As I had not yet watched the film, I did not understand the reasons for her gratitude. I have since watched 'The Danish Girl'  and I now do. 

In the film, Eddie Redmayne portrays the real-life Einar Wegener and the woman Einar becomes, Lili Elbe, while Alicia Vikander plays Einar's wife, Gerda.  Both are painters; Einar of landscapes, Gerda of portraits.The film charts a course through their lives as Einar changes into Lili.

The performance of both Eddie and Vikander as individuals is good, but what sells the film is their performance together as partners. If they had been any less convincing as a couple, the film could very well be nearly not worth watching. By that, I don't mean they should hook up in real life, rather that they played being married so truly. There was a realism, a kind of humanity about them as a pair, that did not require you the viewer to work with the assumption that they are married; they were believably married. They were partners in every sense of the word. 


The film was rather lushly coloured. The landscape scenes were lovely as was the rendition of 1920s Copenhagen and Paris. Alexandre Desplat's score was done in what I consider to be his signature style: very mellow, haunting and moving. He is one of the composers whose work I feel almost sure of recognizing in a film. 

Like all films based on true stories, the film takes liberties with the original tale. It is important to note that the film is based on a novel, which itself is based on the true events in question. As such there are significant discrepancies such as the fact that Lili and Gerda carried on a lesbian relationship after her sex change, and that Lili was not living with Gerda at the time of her death; they had long since separated. As you would no doubt tell, that wasn't judged a palatable fact to be served to film goers. 

Einar's beating also didn't happen. I would suppose its inclusion in the film serves to highlight the other beatings LGBT persons, in other times and places, have faced. It is better to watch the film as more of an allegorical tale than an actual rendering of real-life events. 

The dialogue in the last quarter of the film was overly romantic and cheesy. This was disappointing as the film had actually managed to please with authenticity of its story (in terms of depiction, not facts). Hans (Matthias Schoenaerts) was one of the low points of the film for me. It seemed his role was to stand there and be solid. I guess that the idea behind his character was to contrast him with Einar's evolution into Lili and the consequent/resulting instability in Gerda's life. He could have been livelier though. 

Identity is a key idea in this film; it is not explored completely or in much depth, but you sense it in the undercurrents between Gerda and Lili. At the end of Lili's first day at her new job working at a store, Gerda tells her of a dream she had of Lili getting married. The dialogue excerpt is as follows: 

Gerda: You know, one night last week, I had the strangest dream.
Lili: What was it?
Gerda: I dreamed you were getting married. 

Lili laughs softly, then reflects on the idea.
Lili: Do you think I ever will?
Gerda: Who knows? So many strange things have happened.

Gerda says this with a look that mingles defeat and resignation.  
Lili: I do want to, Gerda.
Gerda: It's not so long ago we were married, you and me.
Lili (corrects): You and Einar.
Gerda: I know it was Einar, but really, it was you and me.
Lili shows discomfort at this, seemingly withdrawing from Gerda.
 

In this scene, you can see that Lili is reluctant to admit any overlap between Einar and Lili; they are two distinct individuals. It is implied that Gerda feels differently. Her consistent attempts at both trying to be supportive and her sadness at losing her husband are evident. Lili ceases to paint because it was part of who Einar was, not Lili, and so takes up a job in a department store; Gerda sees traces of the man she used to know in the woman now before her, and feels they are not as separate as Lili deems them to be.


It would be a bit of a stretch to refer to the Danish Girl as a 'thought-provoking' film; it is just very pretty. However, it does give you a thinking prompt about identity: what can and can't we leave behind when we change.